• Java Reflection is a feature in Java which allows Java programs to introspect upon itself and manipulate the internal properties of the program. Ii is a way of thinking its a metalanguage that enables you to analyze and manipulate your objects in a dynamic way.
  • Reflection is commonly used by programs which require the ability to examine or modify the runtime behavior of applications running in the Java virtual machine.It gives the runtime information about the objects classes and interfaces.
  • The reflection API is used  if we are writing development tools such as debuggers, class browsers, and GUI builders
  • Reflection answers questions like :

  Which class does an object belongs to ?

  What is the description of a given class name?

  What are the fields in the given clas

  What is the type of a field?

  What are the methods in a class?

  What are the parameters of a method?

  What are the constructors of a given class?

                                   

  • Reflection also do things like

         Constructing an object using a given Constructor.

         Invoking a object's method using such-and-such parameters

         Assigning value to an object field.

         Dynamically creating and manipulating arrays

 

 

  • For each class, the Java Runtime Environment (JRE) maintains an immutable Class object that contains information about the class. A Class object represents, or reflects, the class. With the reflection API, we can invoke methods on a Class object which return Constructor, Method, and Field objects.
  • We can use these objects to get information about the corresponding constructors, methods, and fields defined in the class.  Class objects also represent interfaces. We invoke Class methods to find out about an interface's modifiers, methods, and public constants. Not all of the Class methods are appropriate when a Class object reflects an interface. For example, it doesn't make sense to invoke getConstructors when the Class object represents an interface.

 

A program to explain the  Java Reflection API

 

import java.lang.reflect.*;

import java.awt.*;

 

class SampleName {

private double d;

public static final int i = 37;

private  String s = "testing";

private int x,y;

 

public SampleName(){

            System.out.println("Constructor1");

}

public SampleName(int x){

            this.x=x;

}

public SampleName(int x,int y){

            this.x=x;

            this.y=y;

}

   public static void main(String[] args) {

           

            Button b = new Button();

           

            try {

            Class cls = Class.forName("SampleName");

            System.out.println("Finding Out About Class Fields");

            Field fieldlist[]

              = cls.getDeclaredFields();

            for (int i= 0; i < fieldlist.length; i++) {

               Field fld = fieldlist[i];

               System.out.println("name= " + fld.getName());

               System.out.println("decl class = " +

                           fld.getDeclaringClass());

               System.out.println("type = " + fld.getType());

               int mod = fld.getModifiers();

               System.out.println("modifiers = " +

                          Modifier.toString(mod));

               System.out.println("-----");

            }

            System.out.println("Invoking Methods by Name");

                        Class partypes[] = new Class[2];

            partypes[0] = Integer.TYPE;

            partypes[1] = Integer.TYPE;

            Method meth = cls.getMethod("add", partypes);

            SampleName methobj = new SampleName ();

            Object arglist[] = new Object[2];

            arglist[0] = new Integer(37);

            arglist[1] = new Integer(47);

            Object retobj

              = meth.invoke(methobj, arglist);

            Integer retval = (Integer)retobj;

            System.out.println(retval.intValue());

 

            System.out.println("Obtaining Information About Constructors");

            Constructor ctorlist[]

               = cls.getDeclaredConstructors();

         for (int i = 0; i < ctorlist.length; i++) {

               Constructor ct = ctorlist[i];

               System.out.println("name  = " + ct.getName());

               System.out.println("decl class = " +

                            ct.getDeclaringClass());

               Class pvec[] = ct.getParameterTypes();

               for (int j = 0; j < pvec.length; j++)

                  System.out.println("param #"

                     + j + " " + pvec[j]);

               Class evec[] = ct.getExceptionTypes();

               for (int j = 0; j < evec.length; j++)

                  System.out.println(

                    "exc #" + j + " " + evec[j]);

               System.out.println("-----");

         }

         System.out.println("Creating New Objects");

 

                Class partypes1[] = new Class[2];

                             partypes1[0] = Integer.TYPE;

                 partypes1[1] = Integer.TYPE;

                Constructor ct1 = cls.getConstructor(partypes1);

                Object arglist1[] = new Object[2];

                   arglist1[0] = new Integer(37);

                   arglist1[1] = new Integer(47);

                    Object retobj1 = ct1.newInstance(arglist1);

 

                    System.out.println("Using Arrays");

            Class cls1 = Class.forName("java.lang.String");

              Object arr = Array.newInstance(cls1, 10);

                        Array.set(arr, 5, "this is a test");

              String s = (String)Array.get(arr, 5);

              System.out.println(s);

 

         

          }

          catch (Throwable e) {

             System.err.println(e);

          }

          System.out.println("Getting the Class Name");

            printName(b);// Getting the Class Name

            SampleName sName=new SampleName();

            System.out.println("Discovering Class Modifiers");

    printModifiers(sName.s);// Discovering Class Modifiers

           

 

   }

   public int add(int a, int b)

             {

               return a + b;

            }

 public  static void printName(Object o) {

         Class c = o.getClass();//retrieving a class object

            String s = c.getName();//name of a Class object by

                                           //invoking the getName method

 

            System.out.println(s);

}

public static void printModifiers(Object o){

Class c = o.getClass();

int m= c.getModifiers();

if(Modifier.isPublic(m))

System.out.println("public");

if(Modifier.isAbstract(m))

System.out.println("Abstract");

if(Modifier.isFinal(m))

System.out.println("final");

}

}

 

 

Output of the above program

 

 

inding Out About Class Fields

name= d

decl class = class SampleName

type = double

modifiers = private

-----

name= i

decl class = class SampleName

type = int

modifiers = public static final

-----

name= s

decl class = class SampleName

type = class java.lang.String

modifiers = private

-----

name= x

decl class = class SampleName

type = int

modifiers = private

-----

name= y

decl class = class SampleName

type = int

modifiers = private

-----

Invoking Methods by Name

Constructor1

84

Obtaining Information About Constructors

name  = SampleName

decl class = class SampleName

-----

name  = SampleName

decl class = class SampleName

param #0 int

-----

name  = SampleName

decl class = class SampleName

param #0 int

param #1 int

-----

Creating New Objects

Using Arrays

this is a test

Getting the Class Name

java.awt.Button

Constructor1

Discovering Class Modifiers

public

final

 

Drawbacks of Reflection

  • Performance Overhead
  • Security Restrictions
  • Exposure of Internals



Sandeep Joshi
Mathematics, Technology and Programming are my passion. I am a part of Java Ecosystem and through this blog, I contribute to it. I am here to blog about my interests, views and experiences.
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