ArrayDeque are Resizable-array implementation of the Deque interface. Array deques have no capacity restrictions; they grow as necessary to support usage. They are not thread-safe; in the absence of external synchronization, they do not support concurrent access by multiple threads. Null elements are prohibited. This class is likely to be faster than Stack when used as a stack, and faster than LinkedList when used as a queue.

Most ArrayDeque operations run in amortized constant time. Exceptions include removeremoveFirstOccurrenceremoveLastOccurrencecontainsiterator.remove(), and the bulk operations, all of which run in linear time.

The iterators returned by this class's iterator method are fail-fast: If the deque is modified at any time after the iterator is created, in any way except through the iterator's own remove method, the iterator will generally throw aConcurrentModificationException. Thus, in the face of concurrent modification, the iterator fails quickly and cleanly, rather than risking arbitrary, non-deterministic behavior at an undetermined time in the future.

Note that the fail-fast behavior of an iterator cannot be guaranteed as it is, generally speaking, impossible to make any hard guarantees in the presence of unsynchronized concurrent modification. Fail-fast iterators throw ConcurrentModificationExceptionon a best-effort basis. Therefore, it would be wrong to write a program that depended on this exception for its correctness: the fail-fast behavior of iterators should be used only to detect bugs.

This class and its iterator implement all of the optional methods of the Collection and Iterator interfaces.


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Sandeep Joshi
Mathematics, Technology and Programming are my passion. I am a part of Java Ecosystem and through this blog, I contribute to it. I am here to blog about my interests, views and experiences.
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