What is the Difference Between Struts1 and Struts2


Struts2 is more powerful framework as compared to struts1. The table given below describes some differences between struts1 and struts2


S.R. No




Action class in struts1  extends the abstract base class. The problem with struts1 is that it uses the abstract classes rather than interfaces.


An Action class implements an Action interface, along with other interfaces use optional and custom services. Struts 2 provides a base ActionSupport class that implements commonly used interfaces. Although an Action interface is not necessary, any POJO object along with an execute signature can be used as an Struts 2 Action object.



In Struts1 Actions are dependent on the servlet API because HttpServletRequest and HttpServletResponse is passed to the execute method when an Action is invoked.


Struts 2 Actions are not coupled to a container. Most often the servlet contexts are represented as simple Maps, allowing Actions to be tested in isolation. Struts 2 Actions can still access the original request and response, if required. However, other architectural elements reduce or eliminate the need to access the HttpServetRequest or HttpServletResponse directly.


Struts 1 recieves an input by creating an ActionForm object. Like the action classes, all ActionForms class must extend a ActionForm base class. Other JavaBeans classes cannot be used as ActionForms, while developers create redundant classes to receive the input. DynaBeans is the best alternative to create the conventional ActionForm classes.


Struts 2 uses Action properties as input properties, eliminating the need for a second input object. Input properties may be rich object types which may have their own properties. The Action properties can be accessed from the web page via the taglibs. Struts 2 also supports the ActionForm pattern, as well as POJO form objects and POJO Actions. Rich object types, including business or domain objects, can be used as input/output objects. The ModelDriven feature simplifies taglb references to POJO input objects


Struts 1 supports separate Request Processors (lifecycles) for each module, but all the Actions in the module must share the same lifecycle.

Struts 2 supports creating different lifecycles on a per Action basis via Interceptor Stacks. Custom stacks can be created and used with different Actions, as needed.


In Struts1 Actions are singletons therefore they must be thread-safe because only one instance of a class handles all the requests for that Action. The singleton strategy restricts to Struts 1 Actions and requires extra care to make the action resources thread safe or synchronized while developing an application.


In Struts 2 doesn't have thread-safety issues as Action objects are instantiated for each request. A servlet container generates many throw-away objects per request, and one more object does not impose a performance penalty or impact garbage collection


Struts1 application has a major problem while testing the application because the execute method exposes the Servlet API. Struts TestCase provides a set of mock object for Struts 1.


Struts 2 Actions can be tested by instantiating the Action, setting properties, and invoking methods. Dependency Injection support also makes testing simpler.


Struts1 integrates with JSTL, so it uses the JSTL EL. The EL has basic object graph traversal, but relatively weak collection and indexed property support.


Struts 2 can use JSTL, but it also supports a more powerful and flexible expression language called "Object Graph Notation Language" (OGNL).



Struts 1 ActionForm properties are usually all Strings. Struts 1 uses Commons-Beanutils for type conversion. Converters are per-class, and not configurable per instance.

Struts 2 uses OGNL for type conversion and converters to convert Basic and common object types and primitives as well.



Struts 1 uses manual validation that is done via a validate method on the ActionForm, or by using an extension to the Commons Validator. Classes can have different validation contexts for the same class, while chaining to validations on sub-objects is not allowed.


Struts 2 allows manual validation that is done by using the validate method and the XWork Validation framework. The Xwork Validation Framework allows chaining of validations into sub-properties using the validations defined for the properties class type and the validation context


Struts 1 binds objects into the page context by using the standard JSP mechanism

Struts 2 uses a ValueStack technology to make the values accessible to the taglibs without coupling the view to the object to which it is rendering. The ValueStack strategy enables us to reuse views across a range of types, having same property name but different property types.





Sandeep Joshi
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